When the Peninsular War ended in 1814, the prolonged struggle had all but exhausted both British government finances and the British public's enthusiasm for war. The authoritarian rule of Ferdinand VII aroused long-standing British suspicions of Spanish ways, which emerged in British literary works that depicted a retrograde, fanatical Spain. The tumultuous years following Ferdinand's reign also led to divisions among the European powers, some favouring the restoration of Ferdinand, with the British government and liberal forces vehemently opposed. This diverse volume focuses on British reactions to, and representations of, Spanish affairs during this lively period (1814-1823). It demonstrates both Spain's visibility in Regency Britain and the consequent inspiration and dialectical activity of British politicians, artists and intellectuals. It does so through a combination of literary, social, historical and cultural perspectives that bring both fresh light to this formative period of nineteenth-century British attitudes to Spain and a wealth of new scholarly material.
Traditionally, privacy studies have focused on the liberal democratic societies of the global West, whereas non-democratic contexts have played a marginal role in the discussion of the private and public spheres, not in the least because of the political stances of the Cold War era. This volume offers explorations of highly diversified performances and discourses of privacy by various actors which were embedded into the culturally, economically, and politically specific constructions of late socialism in individual states of the Warsaw Pact. While the experience of socialism varied across the Bloc, there were also some reactions to socialism and some reverse responses of socialist regimes to these reactions that one can trace through all states. Contributions to this volume take us across the Eastern Bloc and beyond it-from the Soviet Union, into late socialist Poland, Romania, and East and West Germany. While looking at specific countries, they provide a glimpse into a broader perspective that reaches beyond the borders of individual late socialist states. Together, these articles document a palette of paradigms of the construction and transformation of the private spheres that overcame the national borders of individual states and left an imprint across the Eastern Bloc, thereby contributing to rethinking Cold War rhetoric in regard to these states.
Feminism emerged as a result of the reactions that arose against women s being compelled to live in a world dominated by men in matters of class, religion, social life, politics, sexuality and race. Many laws made in the 19th century following the spread of feminism initiated women to live under relatively just conditions regarding marriage, divorce and property rights. From the 1960s onwards, a second phase started, during which the difference of women was emphasised, and new approaches such as Marxist, Lesbian, Liberal and Black Feminisms have been brought forward. In this book, plays of black British women playwrights who are of Asian or Caribbean origin have been studied from the viewpoint of Black Feminism and it has been argued that black women playwrights mostly handle issues peculiar to women of color, while also dealing with colourless women issues. In support of this assertion, Song for a Sanctuary by Rukhsana Ahmad, My Sister-Wife by Meera Syal, A Hero s Welcome by Winsome Pinnock, and Running Dream by Trish Cooke have respectively been analyzed in detail. These analyses should be helpful to anyone interested in women s issues, black feminism, and black playwrights.
Master's Thesis from the year 2011 in the subject Law - Media, Multimedia Law, Copyright, grade: 14/20, Leuven Catholic University (The Centre for Advanced Legal Studies (C.A.L.S.)), course: International & European Copyright Law, language: English, abstract: This paper aims to propose alternative approaches to online copyright management in the music industry. To do so, it first introduces the concept of Web 2.0 and discusses its relevance to online copyright infringement in the music industry. In addition, current legislative framework both at the international and E.U. level is discussed in order to provide the reader with a picture of the current enforcement system. In a number of E.U. Member States as well as outside the E.U., there have been legislative efforts to control copyright infringement online. Graduated response is one of these systems which is adopted and being implemented by a few Member States. However, there have been strong reactions by user groups against this system in that the system threatens individuals' fundamental rights such as right to privacy, freedom of expression and freedom to access to information. In light of these reactions, this paper argues that the efforts of legislators to introduce stricter measures are futile and limit fundamental rights. This paper suggests that the legislator, instead, should introduce an exemption into the current legislation to protect Internet users who exchange media online for noncommercial purposes. The proposed system allows for a more fair balance between copyright owners' exclusive rights and the fundamental rights of individuals. On the one hand, it leads to a more liberal online environment where individuals freely and legally exchange copyrighted media, on the other hand it secures the right owners' economic rights and thus the incentive for creation is still effective.
Although there have been recent efforts to widen cultural freedoms to Turkey's Kurds and improve socio-economic conditions of the Kurdish region, the legacy of assimilation policies still linger. One way to measure assimilaton policies is the level of ethnic identity felt by Kurds, with the assumption that high levels of identity indicate failure of government's objectives to assimilate. The study conducts a survey of a non-random sample of 78 Kurds in three provinces of Turkey. Since the sampling is non-random and sample size is small, the results are only suggestive. The study uses a model linking identity with emotions. It posits that Kurdish identity can be measured by reference to emotions of hope and anxiety. Theories of ethnic identity, role of emotions, history of Kurds, methodology used and the analysis of data compose this study. The assessment of Kurds' emotional reactions toward socio-economic reforms and assimilation policies would give insight to decision makers in the government and policy analysts to make receptive policies with elements of tolerance for ethnic groups and consequently to strengthen the liberal democracy in Turkey.
This book is a critical analysis of potential Arab/Islamic anti-Americanism in Saudi Arabia. The significance of the Gulf War of 1990/1991 and the resulting stationing of US troops inside the Saudi kingdom for the Arab/Islamic anti-Americanism will be analyzed. Hereby, this project seeks to investigate whether the reactions to the American presence in Saudi Arabia and the broader Arab/Islamic region are of anti-American nature or whether they reveal other proprieties. With the help of various Arabic and American sources the research question is approached and compared from both sides. The inclusion of Arabic sources of Saudi opposition leaders allows this book to examine which leitmotifs dominate the discourse on American soldiers in Saudi Arabia.Overall, four main reactions are identified and discussed with the means of a qualitative analysis: Foreigners and disbelievers in Saudi Arabia, opposition to the Saudi royal family, an exploitation of anti-Americanism, and a liberal movement. The resulting main themes lead to this book s thesis: an anti-American characterization of the reactions to the American troop presence during the Gulf War is a questionable simplification of the situation.
This thesis is an analysis of the ways Catholics in the Archdiocese of Louisville reacted to various Catholic feminist ideas including gender-inclusive language, birth control, abortion, women s ordination, and women s roles in the Church in general from the late 1960s to the mid-1980s. Each of the major chapters will begin with a discussion of Catholic feminist theologians treatment of an issue followed by an analysis of the ways in which Louisville Catholics reacted to the issue. Louisville Catholics reactions were ascertained by using articles and letters to the editor in the archdiocesan paper, The Record, interviews with Louisville Catholics, and unpublished documents from the liberal Catholics women s group, WomanChurch. The reader will see that while the Archdiocese of Louisville had a strong conservative voice, characterizing Louisville Catholics views as all conservative is inaccurate. In the Archdiocese there as a large contingent of liberal Catholics and many Louisville Catholics supported Catholic feminist issues.
Seminar paper from the year 2008 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Topic: Development Politics, grade: distinction, University of Manchester (Institute for Development Policy and Management), course: Perspectives on Development, language: English, abstract: In the mid 1980s development studies experienced a crisis, the often called impasse of de-velopment theory and policy (Schuurmann 1993). The reasons can be found on the level of development thinking and of 'real-world changes and problems' (Simon 2003: 6). Devel-opment thinking got stuck in a cul-de-sac as both grand meta-narratives of development the-ory - Modernisation theory and radical Marxist approaches - lost their hegemony: radical alternative theories, based on Marxist and neo-Marxist political economy were discredited by the collapse of socialism. Modernisation theory, based in neoclassical economics did not seem to deliver many benefits as economic growth turned out to produce more ecological, social and economical problems than it solved (ibid.). It became clear that growth and the neo-liberal agenda with its structural adjustment programs (SAP) in the 1980s and 1990s was not necessarily connected to other development goals like employment creation, reduc-tion of inequality and poverty or the provision of basic needs. The acceleration of globalisation and with it the questioning of the nation state as a 'trusted point of reference' (Schuurman 2000: 7) of development studies intensified the crisis of de-velopment theory. Moreover new theoretical approaches like feminism, post modernism and post colonialism, and the growing recognition of heterogeneity of the third world, challenged development studies and theory even more (Schuurman 1993). There have been two major reactions to the impasse of development theory and policy. The first reaction was the search for development alternatives with the intention of reforming and redefining the goals of development. The second reaction, post development thinking, was more radical as it rejects development as a whole. However, development studies and practice survived the impasse and is back on the agenda: 'a flourishing industry centred on social capital and social development has arisen in the World Bank, the UNDP and other multilateral institutions' (Hart 2001: 649). This paper aims to review alternative development (section 2) and post development (section 3), and analyses which contributions have helped to overcome the impasse.
Inhaltsangabe:Abstract: The so-called Grand Coalition, formed of Social Democrats and Christian Democrats, had come to an agreement in principle regarding a fundamental modification of the Inheritance and Gift Tax. A motion for a resolution containing the achieved compromise had been released to the public the day before. Thus, neither the abolition as intended by some liberal-thinking conservatives, nor a drastic tax increase as demanded by some egalitarian leftists will be the result. A precedent draft of the German Federal Ministry of Finance published last year therefore is very much likely to form the basis of an amended regulation of entrepreneurial succession. There had been long discussions beforehand, attendant on the outstanding ruling of the Federal Constitutional Court, which was expected to assess the differential treatment of acquired assets and its compatibility with the constitution. Introduction: Firstly, this thesis addresses, in its section 2, the legal status quo. I will depict in detail the issues of tax liability, valuation of assets, the calculation prescriptions as well as the current preferential treatment of business assets in practice all based on law in force. Next, the relevant changes comprised in the amending draft are exposed in section 3 with a clear focus on issues dealing with corporate succession, i.e. the transfer of business property. This includes a short, summarizing critique, reflecting how the draft was perceived amongst scientific commentators. In section 5, the ruling of the Federal Constitutional Court is subject to recapitulating representation. The judges dealt with the issue of preferential treatment of real estate and business property thus discriminating against the acquirers of shares or monies. As law just forms a theoretical framework, thereafter I conduct an assessment on possible individual, economically triggered reactions. Section 6 derives the basic approach of opportunistic behaviour, explaining and anticipating effective action of entrepreneurs. Finally, section 7 draws a conclusion, resuming the findings and possible links to further analysis. Inhaltsverzeichnis: Textprobe: