Islam as a topic of interest in sociology is not as widespread as Christianity. Moreover, not until recently has liberal Islam in Russia, been the subject of many academic papers. The shadow of socialism in times past, and recent interest on fundamentalist Muslim movements, has caused social scientific observers to forget about the potential for liberal Islam in Russian society. This study treats the notion of "liberal" through a systemic perspective. By observing how the religious system, Islam, sees itself, it is intended to reveal liberal Islam in Russia and its main characteristics. Furthermore, this study can be understood as a unique application of Niklas Luhmann's system theory on interview analysis. Processing the combination of empirical data and detailed background information on Russian society, gives the opportunity for new insights on Islam in Russia. This work is a snapshot of time for the evolutionary stage of liberal Islam in a post-socialist, Orthodox majority society, which hosts the biggest Muslim community in Europe.
High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! Western Oregon University is a public liberal arts college located in Monmouth, Oregon, United States. Originally established in 1856 by Oregon pioneers as Monmouth University, a private college, it later merged with another private institution, Bethel College, to become Christian College. It became a state college called Oregon State Normal School in 1882. Subsequent names include Oregon Normal School, Oregon College of Education, and Western Oregon State College. Western Oregon University incorporates both the College of Education and the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences. Enrollment is approximately 5,000 students.
Bosch is a company with a rich history. It stands for important trends of the modern world, such as the motorization of transport or the electrification of the household, and was one of the pioneers of globalization. Its founder Robert Bosch was as well known for his liberal views as he was for the social principles he applied to company management. With this book, Johannes Bähr and Paul Erker present the first comprehensive history of Bosch to be written by independent historians. In undertaking their research, the authors had unrestricted access to the company archives. Starting from the figure of the company founder, his business principles, and the early days of his company as a modest, courtyard-entrance workshop in the west end of Stuttgart, they go on to describe the company's rise to become the world's leading automotive supplier, as well as the emergence of a distinctive corporate culture oriented to social concerns. The authors also profile the company's most important subsidiaries, charting the development of the diverse business activities that characterize today's supplier of technology and services. The work's focal points include the company's conduct during the Third Reich as well as the later evolution of its corporate constitution. Spanning a period of more than 100 years, the authors recount the history of one of the world's first global enterprises, a history of outstanding innovations and triumphs, but also of crises that time and again put the company founder's principles to the test.
The nineteenth-century French novel has long been seen as the heroic production of great men, who confronted in their works the social consequences of the French Revolution. And it is true that French realism, especially as developed by Balzac and Stendhal, was one of the most influential novelistic forms ever invented. Margaret Cohen, however, challenges the traditional account of the genesis of realism by returning Balzac and Stendhal to the forgotten novelistic contexts of their time. Reconstructing a key formative period for the novel, she shows how realist codes emerged in a 'hostile take-over' of a prestigious contemporary sentimental practice of the novel, which was almost completely dominated by women writers. Cohen draws on impressive archival research, resurrecting scores of forgotten nineteenth-century novels, to demonstrate that the codes most closely identified with realism were actually the invention of sentimentality, a powerful aesthetic of emerging liberal-democratic society, although Balzac and Stendhal trivialized sentimental works by associating them with 'frivolous' women writers and readers. Attention to these gendered struggles over genre explains why women were not pioneers of realism in France during the nineteenth century, a situation that contrasts with England, where women writers played a formative role in inventing the modern realist novel. Cohen argues that to understand how literary codes respond to material factors, it is imperative to see how such factors take shape within the literary field as well as within society as a whole. The book also proposes that attention to literature as a social institution will help critics resolve the current, vital question of how to practice literary history in the wake of poststructuralism.
With growing numbers of children living in poverty and standardized tests becoming increasingly important, there's never been a better time for a volume of essays on the value of play in mental and emotional development. Mary Ruth Moore and Constance Sabo-Risley honor and build upon the work of Joe L. Frost, the father of play advocacy, in this essential resource for educators, parents, and anyone concerned about the future of our children. The essays examine play in America from historical, psychological, economic, and other perspectives, focusing on why we should worry about children playing less than they did twenty years ago, the benefits of letting children play without constant supervision, how playing can promote a love of nature, and the importance of risk assessment in play. Specific articles include: 'A Place for Play in the Liberal Arts,' by Michael J. Bell; 'Play Deprivation,' by Stuart Brown; 'Caretakers of Wonder' by Vivien Geneser; and 'Social Media as a 21st Century Playground' by Stephanie Grote-Garcia, Tammy Francis Donaldson, Olive Kajoina, and Norman St. Clair. Several other authors also contribute articles to this well-researched book. Pay tribute to one of early childhood education's most important pioneers, and discover the valuable benefits of Play in American Life.
Not to be filed under history, photography, design or non-fiction, as it contains outright lies and outrageous subjective opinion, this book is definitely about street art. It is also about now. Fungus grows on your collected wild-style pioneers. Vile passions rage between old schools and new. Stuff flies out from under the hammer at auction houses and property developers fund street art shows to liberal press fanfare. Oh, and Banksy hits the West Bank. Is anyone taking this thing seriously? Should it be taken seriously? Is it all just an immense daisy chain of poker faces, irony and mind games? Brilliant images of graffiti collected from all over the world and preserved here before the legions employed to destroy them and chip them off the walls. This is art driven by existential hunger, art that attacks you only if you are lame, art that inspires mystery and creativity. 11 Spring St NY was a much-loved site that became a graffiti landmark. Before it was redeveloped it inspired acts of love and passion: Lou Reed made it the subject of a poem and Untitled preserves it in all of its glory. Includes works by Banksy, Faile, Dface, Swoon, Bast, Blu, Blek Le Rat, Obey, Dolk, Eine, Gaia, Elbowtoe, Hush, Copyright, Mir, Dan Witz, Space Invader, Armsrock, Doze Green, Know Hope, Skullphone, WKInteract, Skewville, Borf, Ame72, Sam3, Eelus, Miss Bugs, Rene Gagnon, The London Police, Michael De Feo and many more.
Conventional wisdom maintains that the differences between Islam and Christianity are irreconcilable. Pre-eminent Middle East scholar Richard W. Bulliet disagrees, and in this fresh, provocative book he looks beneath the rhetoric of hatred and misunderstanding to challenge prevailing -- and misleading -- views of Islamic history and a 'clash of civilizations.' These sibling societies begin at the same time, go through the same developmental stages, and confront the same internal challenges. Yet as Christianity grows rich and powerful and less central to everyday life, Islam finds success around the globe but falls behind in wealth and power. Modernization in the nineteenth century brings in secular forces that marginalize religion in political and public life. In the Christian world, this simply furthers a process that had already begun. In the Middle East this gives rise to the tyrannical governments that continue to dominate. Bulliet argues that beginning in the 1950s American policymakers misread the Muslim world and, instead of focusing on the growing discontent against the unpopular governments, saw only a forum for liberal, democratic reforms within those governments. By fostering slogans like 'clash of civilizations' and 'what went wrong,' Americans to this day continue to misread the Muslim world and to miss the opportunity to focus on common ground for building lasting peace. This book offers a fresh perspective on U.S.-Muslim relations and provides the intellectual groundwork upon which to help build a peaceful and democratic future in the Muslim world. On 'clash of civilizations' 'Civilizations that are destined to clash cannot seek together a common future. Like Mathews'Islam, Huntington's Islam is beyond redemption. The strain of Protestant American thought that both men are heir to, pronounces against Islam the same self-righteous and unequivocal sentence of 'otherness'that American Protestants once visited upon Catholics and Jews.' On 'what went wrong' 'The idea that people in the Middle East once embraced the goal of becoming like Europe and hoped that by adopting European ideas and institutions they would someday experience all of the liberal values we recognize in the Europe of today is nonsense. It assumes a historical outcome for Europe itself that no one even in Europe could have predicted.' On 'why do they hate us' 'Those who advanced the Japanese occupation as a model for postwar Iraq seem to have baseball, Hello Kitty, and Elvis impersonators in the back of their minds rather than headscarves and turbaned mullahs.... Like latter day missionaries, we want the Muslims to love us, not just for what we can offer in the way of a technological society but for who we are -- for our values. But we refuse to countenance the thought of loving them for their values.' On Islam's ideological shortcomings 'Jim Jones, David Koresh, and Meir Kahane do not typify Christianity and Judaism in the eyes of the civilized West but those same eyes are prone to see Osama bin Laden and Mullah Muhammad Omar as typifying Islam.' On Middle East studies 'The founders of Middle East studies ignored recommendations that they focus on contemporary Islam and focused instead on Middle Easterners trying to act like westerners. There weren't a lot of these, just as there hadn't been a lot of converts, but the conviction was strong that those few would be pioneers in bringing western modernity to the region... The people we supported as agents of modernity became tyrants.'