Progressive Muslims have produced a considerable body of liberal thoughts within Islam (or "interpretation-based Islam", and or "progressive Islam", but some consider progressive Islam and liberal Islam as two distinct movements). These movements share a philosophy that depends largely on ijtihad. Liberal Muslims do not necessarily subscribe to the more culturally-based interpretations of the Qur'an and Hadith. They generally claim that they are returning to the principles of the early Ummah and to the ethical and pluralistic intent of their scripture. The reform movement uses monotheism (tawhid) "as an organizing principle for human society and the basis of religious knowledge, history, metaphysics, aesthetics, and ethics, as well as social, economic and world order."
Revision with unchanged content. In evolutionary theory, the existence of religion has been explained as an adaptive behavioral strategy. This theory can also be used to account for the differences between religious groups. Unique data collected using the Experience Sampling Method (ESM), where participants report their behaviors and experiences on a moment-by moment basis were used to examine differences between liberal and conservative Protestant school students in the United States. The results show that conservative Protestant youth are generally more satisfied, family-oriented and sociable than liberal Protestant youth, but also more dependent on their social environment, which is reflected in a deterioration of their mood when they are alone. Using an independent set of data, linguistic analysis of sermons and mission statements show that liberal churches refer more to individualism, diversity and nurturance, whereas conservative churches focus more on authoritarianism, unity and obedience. The numerous differences between conservative and liberal Protestant denominations suggest that they cannot be ranked along a single continuum of religiosity from "weak" to "strong", nor that one is more universally adaptive than the other. Instead they appear to be qualitatively different socio-ecological strategies, both adaptive in a multiple-niche environment.
In autumn 2012, University College Freiburg introduced 'Liberal Arts and Sciences' (LAS), the first four-year undergraduate program of its kind at a German university. Inspired by Liberal Arts programs of universities in the United States and the Netherlands, this undergraduate curriculum is based on the ancient concept of the Seven Liberal Arts, and is intended to serve as preparatory study for later specialization. Although the traditional canon of Seven Liberal Arts, consisting of three language sciences and four natural sciences, only became fixed in the Middle Ages, its roots can be traced into Classical Antiquity. This volume is conceived as a sourcebook of Greek and Latin texts with English translations and is addressed to any reader interested in the history of the Seven Liberal Arts. Two essays, 'Körper und Geist in der Erziehung des freien griechischen Mannes' by Prof. Hans-Joachim Gehrke, and 'Der Streit um die richtige Bildung in Rom' by Prof. Bernhard Zimmermann, expand upon the subject of the volume.
Liberal nationalism is a kind of nationalism identified by political philosophers who believe in a non-xenophobic form of nationalism compatible with liberal values of freedom, tolerance, equality, and individual rights. Ernest Renan and John Stuart Mill are often thought to be early liberal nationalists. Liberal nationalists often defend the value of national identity by saying that individuals need a national identity in order to lead meaningful, autonomous lives and that liberal democratic polities need national identity in order to function properly.
Liberal Christianity, sometimes called liberal theology, is an umbrella term covering diverse, philosophically informed religious movements and ideas within Christianity from the late 18th century and onwards. The word "liberal" in liberal Christianity does not refer to a progressive political agenda or set of beliefs, but rather to the manner of thought and belief associated with the philosophical and religious paradigms developed during the Age of Enlightenment.
This study provides an original conception of liberalism that accounts for its internal contradictions and explains the current crisis of liberal internationalism. Examining the disjuncture between liberal theory and practice, it offers a firmer grasp on the historical role of liberalism in world politics.
Until now, there has been no direct and extensive engagement with the category of religion from liberal political philosophy. Over the last thirty years or so, liberals have tended to analyze religion under proximate categories such as 'conceptions of the good' (in debates about neutrality) or 'culture' (in debates about multiculturalism). US constitutional lawyers and French political theorists both tackled the category of religion head-on (under First Amendmentjurisprudence and the political tradition of laïcité, respectively) but neither of these specialized national discourses found their way into mainstream liberal political philosophy.This is somewhat paradoxical because key liberal notions (state sovereignty, toleration, individual freedom, the rights of conscience, public reason) were elaborated as a response to 17th Century European Wars of Religion, and the fundamental structure of liberalism is rooted in the western experience of politico-religious conflict. So a reappraisal of this tradition - and of its validity in the light of contemporary challenges - is well overdue.This book offers the first extensive engagement with religion from liberal political philosophers. The volume analyzes, from within the liberal philosophical tradition itself, the key notions of conscience, public reason, non-establishment, and neutrality. Insofar as the contemporary religious revival is seen as posing a challenge to liberalism, it seems more crucial than ever to explore the specific resources that the liberal tradition has to answer it.
The Limits of Liberal Justice addresses important scholarly debates and public policy issues, discussing conceptual and political problems at the heart of Australian liberal democracy. Taking the recent debates over liberal and communitarian political philosophy as the object of inquiry, the book explores the social and political character of multiculturalism and indigenous rights movements in Australia s political culture. Cutting across the complex terrain of the many forms of claims for recognition, cultural protections and group-specific rights, the book argues that the point is not whether we should accept or reject the claims of diversity tout court. Rather we should use the protocols of the Rawlsian justice as fairness' to discern and differentiate between acceptable and unacceptable claims. Covering interesting and important aspects of the theories of citizenship, especially political liberalism, and the extent to which they help to formulate an understanding of pluralism in relation to political stability and justice, this book will prove useful reading for students and anyone interested in Rawlsian liberalism and social justice.
Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. The Liberal Catholic Church is a form of Christianity open to theosophical ideas and even reincarnation. It is not connected to the Roman Catholic Church. The title also is applied to various separate and independent denominations throughout the world holding many theosophical ideas in common. The founding bishop of the Liberal Catholic Church was J. I. Wedgwood of the Wedgwood China family, who became a theosophist and was ordained as a priest in the Old Catholic movement on July 22, 1913, by Arnold Harris Mathew.
This book argues for a modern version of liberal arts education, exploring first principles within the divine comedy of educational logic. By reforming the three philosophies of metaphysics, nature and ethics upon which liberal arts education is based, Tubbs offers a profound transatlantic philosophical and educational challenge to the subject.
Erscheinungsdatum: 08.08.2019, Medium: Taschenbuch, Einband: Kartoniert / Broschiert, Titel: Liberal Churchmen, Verlag: HardPress Publishing, Sprache: Englisch, Schlagworte: HISTORY // General, Rubrik: Geschichte, Seiten: 506, Informationen: Paperback, Gewicht: 725 gr, Verkäufer: averdo
Liberal Democracy, also known as constitutional democracy, is a common form of representative democracy in which elected representatives who hold power are limited by a constitution that emphasizes protecting individual liberties, equality and the rights of minority groups. Among the many liberties that might be protected are freedom of speech and assembly, freedom of religion, the right to private property and privacy as well as equality before the law and due process under the rule of law. Such constitutional rights, also call liberal rights, are guaranteed through various controlled institutions and statutory laws. Additionally, the constitutions of most contemporary liberal democracies prohibit majoritarianism, which is rule by the will of majority, when it harms those in the minority. Among the most important main elements of liberal democracy in the West, as many modern commentators and political theorists are: Popular Sovereignty, Civil Liberties, Majority Rule, Elected Representatives, Separation of Powers, Political Participation, Competitive Elections and Political Party system and Interest Groups.